expectations, enforce them and don’t allow the addicted person to violate them. Doing so will destroy your credibility and perpetuate the addiction. Don’t Enable. Just like you know with your other homeless friends, enabling may increase an addicted person’s risk of overdose and death. “Positive enabling,” on the other hand, encourages circum- stances and consequences that offer the best chance for a person addicted to opiates to alter the course of addiction, according to addiction.com. Show empathy and compassion in the same way you’d show it to someone suffering from any other chronic illness. Telling someone what to do is usually less effective than showing them that you’re on their team and are prepared to assist them in getting help for their addiction. Rephrase wording such as, “You need to…” or “Why aren’t you doing…?” with ones that communicate from a personal perspective: “I would feel better if you did…” or “I’d like to help you do.…” This approach can make it easier for the person to accept the help being offered. When dealing with someone who struggles with opioid drug use, express compassion and support. Show that you’re concerned about the person’s well- being without being judgmental. “Displaying an open willingness to help…without trying to dictate the course of action is often received much more positively,” explains an expert on addiction.com. Watch for potential overdose. People who abuse drugs are at an even greater risk of overdose during recovery. Watch them carefully and make a plan beforehand of what actions your mission will take if an overdose is suspected. Ĩ WWW.AGRM.ORG JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 21 “Medication-assisted treatment is the evidence-based practice of treating people addicted to opioids,” says Kevin Moore, director of the Indiana Division of Mental Health and Addiction. Known as MAT, medication-assisted treatment uses one of three possible drugs to help a person in recovery remain free of opioids. Using medication to help a person overcome addiction is a controver- sial practice, with some saying it just replaces one drug with another. But Dr. Tim Kelly, an addictions specialist with Community Behavioral Health, says, “Without medication-assisted treatment, the success rate is 10 percent or less.” When people addicted to opioids are ready for treatment, they have several options available—but more than one should be used, experts say. “[Medications] tamper the craving of opioids; it blocks the effects of opioids,” Moore said. “Medication allows them to continue their normal life with family and kids and work and school and whatever they’re pursuing. But medication is only one part of it.” He says people with opioid addictions should also have therapy that focuses on changing thought patterns, who their friends are, who they associate with, and other patterns that lead to drug use. According to drugabuse.com, the following are the three most com- mon medications used during withdrawal and addiction treatment: Methadone: Methadone is long-acting synthetic opioid agonist. It reduces cravings and alleviates symptoms of withdrawal in order to prevent relapse. Buprenorphine: Buprenorphine is a synthetic opioid medication that works as a partial agonist at opioid receptors, partially activating opioid receptors to produce a safe level of opioid effects. The drug has a ceiling, meaning effects only reach a certain point. This discourages abuse of the drug for a “high.” Naltrexone: Naltrexone is a synthetic opioid antagonist, meaning it blocks opioid receptors in the brain. This drug works to prevent opioid abuse by blocking the euphoric effects. Drugs to Treat Drug Abuse How medications can help people with opiate addiction